Working Papers

The Narrow Corridor and the Heel of Achilles: how social contracts can collapse.
Joint with Marcus Miller

Latest version (July 2021)


The Political Economy of Immigration, Investment, and Naturalization. Joint with Atisha Ghosh.

Latest version (June 2021)


How Dictators Forestall Democratization Using International Trade Policy. Joint with Kishore Gawande.

Latest version (February 2020)


Publications in Peer-Reviewed Journals

Contesting an International Trade Agreement.
Joint with Matt Cole and James Lake.  Journal of International Economics, (January 2021) 128: 103410.
Final accepted version (November 2020)

CESifo Working Paper 6956 (March 2018).

Cal Poly Working Paper 1703 (June 2017)

Data to reproduce Table 1 of the paper: Readme; 7-Zip


A Theory of Trade Policy under Dictatorship and Democratization.
Journal of International Economics, (November 2017) 109: 85-101.
Final Working Paper Version (including supplementary online appendix) (September 2017).
CESifo Working Paper 6662.
A non-technical summary: InsTED column.

Patent Breadth in an International Setting. Joint with Rick Bond. Economic Inquiry, July (2017) 55(3): 1538-1555
Final Working Paper Version (March 2017)
CESifo Working Paper 6411

Pampered Bureaucracy, Political Stability and Trade Integration. Joint with Caleb Stroup. Review of Development Economics, (August 2017) 21(3) 425-450
Final Working Paper Version (including supplementary online appendix) (February 2017).
CESifo Working Paper 6371.

Food Price Shocks, Income, and Democratization. World Bank Economic Review: Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics, “The Role of Theory in Development Economics,” (April 2015) vol 29 (suppl 1): S145-S154.
Final Working Paper Version (February 2015)
CESifo Working Paper 5228

Developing Country Second-Mover Advantage in Competition over Environmental Standards and Taxes.
Joint with Valeska Groenert. Journal of Public Economic Theory (October 2013) 15(5): 700-728.
Final Working Paper Version (December 2011).
CESifo Working Paper 3686.

Is the GATT/WTO’s Article XXIV Bad? Joint with Monika Mrázová and David Vines. Journal of International Economics (January 2013) 89(1): 216-232.
Final Working Paper Version (including supplementary online appendix (July 2012).

Why are Trade Agreements Regional? Review of International Economics (February 2011) 19(1): 32-45.
Final Working Paper Version (including supplementary appendix)
Vanderbilt University Dept. of Economics Working Paper No. 10-W02 (March 2010).

Optimum Tariffs and Retaliation: How Country Numbers Matter. Journal of International Economics (July 2009) 78(2):  276-286.
Final Working Paper Version (including supplementary appendix) (March 2009).

Public Good Differentiation and the Intensity of Tax Competition. Joint with Myrna Wooders. Journal of Public Economics (June 2008) 92: 1105-1121.
Final Working Paper Version (including extended appendix) (June 2007).
Vanderbilt University Dept. of Economics Working Paper No. 07-W10 (June 2007).

The GATT and Gradualism. Journal of International Economics (April 2007) 71(2): 410-433.
Final Working Paper Version (including extended appendix) (August 2006).

Tax Competition Reconsidered. Joint with Amrita Dhillon and Myrna Wooders Journal of Public Economic Theory (June 2007) 9(3): 391-423.
Final Working Paper Version (August 2006).


An Internalisation-Based World Environmental Organisation. Joint with John Whalley.  World Economy (May 2002) 25(5): 619-42.
Final Version

Other Research Publications


US – Shrimp II (Vietnam): Dubious Application of Anti-Dumping Duties; Should Have Used Safeguards. Joint with Jan Wouters. World Trade Review (March 2017) 16(2): 183-201.
Final Working Paper Version (October 2016)
European University Institute Working Paper RSCAS 2016/51

Social Unrest in the Wake of IMF Structural Adjustment Programs. Joint with Caleb Stroup. Published in K. Wärneryd (ed.) The Economics of Conflict: Theory and Empirical Evidence, MIT Press (CESifo Seminar Series), Cambridge, MA.
Final Working Paper Version (April 2013).
CESifo Working Paper No. 4211.

Regional Trade Blocks in a Non-Cooperative Network.” Published in William R. Stevens (ed) Trade and Development: Focus on Free Trade Agreements, Nova Publishers, Huappuage, New York.


Making Environmental Deals: The Economic Case for a World Environmental Organization. Joint with John Whalley. pp. 163-180 in D. Esty and M. Ivanova (eds) Global Environmental Governance: Options & Opportunities, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

Available online